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Calendar, Day, The Scriptural

By Chuck Henry
chuck.henry@sbcglobal.net
http://www.halleluyahfellowship.com
rev. 5/9/2015

 

Table of Contents

 

1. Introduction

2. The Beginning – Genesis 1:5 – Elohim called the light Day, the darkness Night, and evening and morning were the first day (thus, a 24-hour day)

2.1. Gen 1:5 – “Day” and “Night”

2.2. A day can refer to daylight, or a 24-hour calendar day

2.3. Evening-Morning in Genesis 1

2.4. Daniel 8:14, 26 – Evening-Morning

2.5. “The Dayspring” Doctrine

2.6. The 24-Hour Day: Further Evidence from Scripture

2.7. “Dawn” and “Daybreak” do not mean “beginning of a calendar day;” so, let’s not manipulate the definition to say they do!

2.8. Summary

3. Genesis 1 – Darkness (Heb. choshek) First, then Light

4. Genesis 1:14-19 – The Creation of Lights

5. Genesis 8:22 – Seedtime and Harvest, Cold and Heat, etc.

6. The Feast of Unleavened Bread – leaven removed by the 14th at evening (Exo 12:18-19)

7. Manna and Sabbath Evidence (Exo 16:21-26)

7.1. Context is Key

7.2. Tomorrow (Heb. machar) is a Sabbath rest (Exo 16:23)

7.3. “Morrow,” “Tomorrow,” and the Hebrew word machar

8. The Timing of Sacrifices (Lev 7:15-18; 22:29-30)

9. The Day of Atonement (Lev 23:32)

10. Yahweh’s Alleged Silence about Evening to Evening Observance of Other Feast Days

11. Lessons from the Process of Becoming Clean (Lev 22; Deu 23)

12. Those Hung on a Tree to be Buried the Same Day (Deu 21:22-23 cp. Jos 8:29; 10:26-27)

13. Samson’s Riddle explains within the Seven Days of the Feast (Jdg 14:12-18)

14. Saul and David use the term “day” in reference to an activity that occurred at night (1 Sam 26)

15. Sabbath Reform under Nehemiah (Neh 13:15-22)

16. Proverbs 4:18 – The sun “that shines ever brighter unto the perfect day”

17. Gate of Future Temple Shut at Evening (Eze 46:1-2)

18. Healings Performed after the Sabbath (Mark 1; Luke 4)

19. Yeshua used the phrase “today, even this night” (Mark 14:30)

20. Are there not twelve hours in a day? (John 11:9)

21. The Messiah’s Burial

22. Visitation to the tomb after the Messiah’s resurrection: Early in the morning on the first day of the week, or shortly after the weekly Sabbath ended the prior evening?

22.1. Introduction

22.2. Matthew’s Account

22.3. The other Evangel accounts agree, this was on a Sunday morning

22.4. “Early”

22.5. While it was still dark (Joh 20:1)

23. Evening to Evening – A Babylonian Day (?)

23.1. “Day,” World Book Encyclopedia

23.2. “Calendar,” Pictorial Bible Dictionary

24. Evening to Evening – Further Historical Evidence

24.1. Josephus: Wars 4.9.12

24.2. Edersheim: The Temple, Its Ministry and Services

25. Post-Exile Jews and the Sabbath in Yeshua’s Day

26. 1 John 1:5 – Yahweh is light and in Him is no darkness at all

27. 6 P.M. Reckoning

28. Conclusion

Appendix 1: Biblical Texts with Day / Night Word Order (or similar thereto)

Appendix 2: Biblical Texts with Night / Day Word Order (or Evening to Evening, or similar thereto)

 

Scripture quotations are from the New King James Version (NKJV) of the Bible unless otherwise noted.

 

 

 

The observances of the weekly Sabbath as well as other days of importance in Scripture are of necessity affected by the issue of when a Scriptural day begins and ends.

 

A doctrine which has gained momentum is that of “Day-Only” or “Morning Theory.” These terms can be used interchangeably and refer to the idea that the Scriptural day begins not in the evening but in the morning, and that the observance of the day is during the daylight-hours-only, rather than a 24-hour period (although some Morning Theory adherents may observe a 24-hour period consisting of morning-to-morning instead of evening-to-evening). A caveat of the “Day-Only” or “Morning Theory” position is that there are certain occasions when adherents of this doctrine conclude that an observance includes a prior evening if they deem that Scripture so indicates. Therefore, by their own definition, this means that the observance actually begins the prior calendar day. More details about this are covered in the body of this study.

 

What does the weight of evidence support:

 

  • The Scriptural day beginning in the morning or the evening?

 

  • Day-Only or 24-hour observance?

 

These are the questions which this study addresses.

 

 

 

2.1. Gen 1:5 – “Day” and “Night”

 

“Day-Only” or “Morning Theory” adherents point to Genesis 1:5 as their main proof text for the Scriptural day beginning at morning light. Presented below is Genesis 1:5 along with Hebrew words and Strong’s numbers relevant to this study—

 

Gen 1:5

Elohim called the light  [owr                 (216)]

Day                                         [yom                (3117)],

and the darkness                     [choshek          (2822)]

He called Night                        [layil                (3915)].

So the evening                        [ereb                (6153)]

and the morning                       [boqer              (1242)]

were the first day                      [yom                (3117)].

 

The Morning Theory rationale goes like this:

 

1)      He called the light day; therefore, by definition, light is day.

 

2)      Day, therefore, does not include night; darkness is night.

 

3)      Problem Solved: A day begins at first light and ends at last light.

 

Day-Only observers suggest that you keep in mind the major premise of their argument that “Light equals Day.” This is the first seed planted, which is meant to grow into the narrow view that “day” must therefore always equal “light.”

 

Summary of Day-Only / Morning Theory Major Premises:

 

  • Light = Day

 

therefore …

 

  • Day = Light

 

In addition to the foregoing rationale proposed by the Day-Only view, the following challenge is issued regarding the word yom being used twice in Genesis 1:5 —

 

Is it possible for the same verse to use the same word, yom, to denote the light called “day” in one case, and a 24-hour day in the second case?

 

The answer to this is “Yes it is!”, and the explanation is simple. A day can refer to daylight, and it can also refer to a 24-hour calendar day. Evidence of this follows…

 

2.2. A day can refer to daylight, or a 24-hour calendar day

 

A Rule to remember: Light is during the day, but the 24-hour calendar day is not always light due to the fact that part of each 24-hour period is dark.

 

Obviously, any 24-hour calendar day, inclusive of the Scriptural day, includes darkness; otherwise, each calendar day is left 12 hours* short of 24 hours, under which condition, obviously, no calendar will work.

 

* The Encyclopaedia Judaica explains that the day and night were divided into twelve hours each, the duration of those hours being adjusted as needed throughout the year—

 

... The day is deemed to begin at sunset or at the end of twilight, and its 24 hours (12 in the day and 12 in the night) are “temporary” hours varying in length with the respective length of the periods of light and darkness.

 

-- “Calendar,” Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. Vol. 4, p. 354.

 

Practical examples of everyday life show the different usages of the word “day.” If someone says he wants to mend a fence “during the day” tomorrow, it is obvious that he wants to get the fence mended during the next period of daylight hours. However, if a medication states that you should not take more than four pills “per day,” it is obvious that you should not exceed this amount during a 24-hour period.

 

Interestingly, the Hebrew word yom also carries these different connotations, as shown in the following reference works:

 

Strong’s definition acknowledges—

 

3117. yowm, yome; from an unused root mean. to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether lit. (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next)

 

The Jewish Encyclopedia in its article “Day (Hebrew ‘yom’)” states:

 

In the Bible, the season of light (Gen. i. 5), lasting “from dawn [lit. “the rising of the morning”] to the coming forth of the stars” (Neh. iv. 15, 17). The term “day” is used also to denote a period of twenty-four hours (Ex. xxi. 21). … The day is reckoned from evening to eveningi.e., night and day—except in reference to sacrifices, where daytime and the night following constitute one day (Lev. vii. 15; see Calendar). [All material quoted is as it appears in the work, including bracketed information.]

 

-- “Day (Hebrew ‘yom’),” Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Web. 4/12/2013.

URL:

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5007-day

 

Beware of those who may cite only the portion of a reference work which agrees with their case while omitting other significant information relative to the issue. For example, the first portion of each of the above reference works may be quoted by Morning Theory supporters, without bothering to inform their audience of what information immediately follows the citation which they have extracted.

 

Not only do these references acknowledge the different usages of day (yom), but the Bible does also. Not to be overlooked or dismissed is the fact that Genesis 1:5 itself declares that the evening and the morning were the first yom, thus describing the 24-hour Scriptural calendar day. In addition, several other verses from Genesis 1 also declare that the evening and the morning were a yom, a day (see the verses quoted in the next section) —

 

2.3. Evening-Morning in Genesis 1

 

It is noteworthy that in every instance the creation days are described as the evening and the morning (not the morning and the evening), indicating that the Scriptural day begins in the evening. Following, is a recap of these verses—

 

Gen 1:5

The Mighty One called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. So the evening [ereb] and the morning [boqer] were the first day [yom].

 

Gen 1:8

And the Mighty One called the firmament Heaven. So the evening [ereb] and the morning [boqer] were the second day [yom].

 

Gen 1:13

So the evening [ereb] and the morning [boqer] were the third day [yom].

 

Gen 1:19

So the evening [ereb] and the morning [boqer] were the fourth day [yom].

 

Gen 1:23

So the evening [ereb] and the morning [boqer] were the fifth day [yom].

 

Gen 1:31

Then the Mighty One saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good. So the evening [ereb] and the morning [boqer] were the sixth day [yom].

 

It then follows that the seventh day of this same week would not have suddenly jumped track and began at a different time than the previous six days, nor would it have consisted of “day only.” Like the other six days of the week, the Sabbath also consists of evening and morning, a 24-hour period.

 

Gen 2:1-3

1 Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished.

2 And on the seventh day [yom] the Mighty One ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day [yom] from all His work which He had done.

3 Then the Mighty One blessed the seventh day [yom] and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which the Mighty One had created and made.

 

2.4. Daniel 8:14, 26 – Evening-Morning

 

In Daniel 8, 2300 days are described as evening-mornings. If it is not enough proof that days are specifically labeled as evening-morning 6 times in Genesis 1, how about 2300 more times in Daniel 8?

 

Dan 8:14, 26

14 And he said to me, for two thousand three hundred days; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed.

26 And the vision of the evenings and mornings which was told is true; therefore seal up the vision, for it refers to many days in the future.

 

Without delving into a complete description of the 2300-day prophecy mentioned, please notice that a time period of 2300 days is specified.

 

In verse 14, the word “days” is from the Hebrew ereb (H6153). In Genesis 1, ereb was translated “evening.” A text note in the New King James Version shows that the underlying Hebrew in Daniel 8:14 is “Literally evening-mornings.”

 

Other translations corroborate—

 

Dan 8:14 (NIV)

He said to me, It will take 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the sanctuary will be reconsecrated.

 

Dan 8:14 (RSV)

And he said to him, For two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings; then the sanctuary shall be restored to its rightful state.

 

Dan 8:14 (NASB)

And he said to me, For 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the holy place will be properly restored.

 

Dan 8:14 (Amp)

And he said to him and to me, For 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed and restored.

 

Verse 26 offers even further clarification by describing the vision as “evenings and mornings” (Heb. ereb and boqer). Daniel is then told specifically that this “refers to many days in the future”—

 

Dan 8:26

And the vision of the evenings [ereb (H6153)] and mornings [boqer (H1242)] which was told is true; therefore seal up the vision, for it refers to many days in the future.

 

In his 2300 day prophecy, Daniel…

 

1)      endorses the understanding that a Scriptural day consists of evening and morning, a 24-hour period.

 

2)      shows that 2300 days refers to many such 24-hour periods.

 

Morning Theorist Craig Peters states in his work The Dayspring (11/20/1994), p. 14:

 

… Daniel the prophet was stunned by a vision of 2300 evenings and mornings – an apostasy so incredible in scope that it would pervert the times and the law almost beyond imagination as it trampled truth to the ground. Have we been duped into an “evening and morning” observance of the Seventh Day which is commanded nowhere in Scripture? The author answers in the affirmative.

 

Using Peters’ reasoning, Daniel would also have been “stunned” at a reading of Genesis 1, wherein the same terminology, evening and morning (Heb. ereb and boqer), is used six times! Clearly, this points out the error of such an interpretation.

 

2.5. “The Dayspring” Doctrine

 

Incidentally, Peters’ paper has evidently been widely circulated, even giving rise to the coinage of a new term: “The Dayspring” doctrine.

 

On page 28 of his study, Peters claims that he has declared “the whole counsel of Yahweh” on this matter—

 

If after giving this full consideration you cannot bring yourself to observe days starting in the morning, I have nothing else to say: only Yahweh can teach His people what is true and right; I cannot (and will not) partake in a continual, back-and-forth lambasting of other dear brethren who do not believe as do I; my responsibility has been fulfilled in declaring the whole counsel of Yahweh (Acts 20:26,27) by providing all brethren with the proof necessary for change.

 

In another note of interest later in the same paragraph, Peters credits Everett Pudwill as being the initial instrument through which he believes this doctrine was delivered—

 

Yahweh was the Originator of all that is true and I believe He choose [sic] to bring this initially through our dear brother Everett Pudwill.

 

2.6. The 24-Hour Day: Further Evidence from Scripture

 

During the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the service of Yahweh, an instruction was given that is revealing for purposes of this study—

 

Lev 8:35

Therefore you shall stay at the door of the tabernacle of meeting day and night for seven days [yom], and keep the charge of Yahweh, so that you may not die; for so I have been commanded.

 

“Day and night for seven days (yom)” refutes the understanding that yom is “day-only” and further underscores that the Scriptural day is a 24-hour period.

 

Further revealing evidence is found in a directive given by Esther, which resulted in the deliverance of the Jewish people—

 

Est 4:16

Go, gather all the Jews who are present in Shushan, and fast for me; neither eat nor drink for three days [yom], night or day [yom]. My maids and I will fast likewise. And so I will go to the king, which is against the law; and if I perish, I perish!

 

Genesis 5:5 states the following about Adam’s lifespan—

 

Gen 5:5

So all the days [yom] that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died.

 

What think ye? Did the 930 years of Adam’s life consist of daytime only, or did those years also include night? Indeed, the days of Adam’s life included day and night. Years are made up of calendar days which include day and night.

 

2.7. “Dawn” and “Daybreak” do not mean “beginning of a calendar day;” so, let’s not manipulate the definition to say they do!

 

Dawn means to begin to grow light. It does not mean “beginning of a Scriptural calendar day.” The same goes for the word “daybreak,” a synonym of dawn.

 

Dawn, or daybreak, is the beginning of the daylight portion during a full, 24-hour calendar day. This poses no problem to the understanding that a full, 24-hour, Scriptural calendar day runs from evening-to-evening.

 

2.8. Summary

 

Anybody can see that night and day are different. Anybody should also concede the physical fact that a calendar day lasts 24 hours. It is impossible for a calendar day to last only 12 hours; if it did, the other hours of that calendar day are lost each and every day.

 

That nighttime is different from daylight is not the crux of the matter; rather, the crux of the matter has to do with when the 24-hour Scriptural day begins.

 

To be clear, the central issues are: 1) when does the Scriptural day begin, and 2) is there a 24-hour calendar day in Scripture?

 

When it comes to allowing or disallowing a 24-hour day, there is a remarkable inconsistency to the Day-Only / Morning Theory view. On the one hand, Day-Only / Morning Theory adherents argue that night is not day, and thus they disallow night to be counted as part of a full 24-hour Scriptural calendar day beginning in the evening. Yet, on the other hand, they will allow the night to be part of a full 24-hour calendar day, but only if it is the night which follows the preceding daylight. This is done out of necessity, as they are absolutely compelled to take the night portion into account at some point or else they lose 12 hours of each and every 24-hour calendar day. This alone is enough proof that even according to them, a full calendar day does indeed contain 24 hours.

 

 

 

Genesis 1:1-2 informs us that “In the beginning Elohim created the heavens and the earth … and darkness was on the face of the deep”—

 

Gen 1:1-2

1 In the beginning Elohim created the heavens and the earth.

2 The earth was without form, and void; and darkness [choshek (H2822)] was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of Elohim was hovering over the face of the waters.

 

From the Scriptural record, darkness was here first. Only later was light created. Continuing in Genesis 1:3-5 —

 

Gen 1:3-5

3 Then Elohim said, Let there be light; and there was light.

4 And Elohim saw the light, that it was good; and Elohim divided the light from the darkness [choshek (H2822)].

5 Elohim called the light [owr (H216)] Day [yom (H3117)], and the darkness [choshek (H2822)] He called Night [layil (H3915)]. So the evening and the morning were the first day [yom].

 

Morning Theory advocates attempt to argue on an alleged principle that Yahweh did none of His work at night. However, in verse 2, it was dark (choshek, the same term which Yahweh called Night in Genesis 1:5), after which Yahweh created light in verse 3! Nowhere does it state that Yahweh created darkness, after which He created light.

 

There is no reason to limit Yahweh to working only during the daytime. Both the day and the night are His (Psa 74:16)—

 

Psa 74:16

The day (yom) is Yours, the night (layil) also is Yours; You have prepared the light and the sun.

 

 

 

In Genesis 1:14-19 reports—

 

Gen 1:14-19

14 Then the Mighty One said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years;

15 and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth; and it was so.

16 Then the Mighty One made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night. He made the stars also.

17 The Mighty One set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light on the earth,

18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness. And the Mighty One saw that it was good.

19 So the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

 

Craig Peters (The Dayspring, p. 1) asserts the following:

 

The greater light, the sun, is prepared first ... Afterwards, the lesser light, the moon, is prepared by Yahweh ... This order further proves the day begins at dawn and that day followed by night together comprise a full, complete day.

 

When it comes to Mr. Peters’ commentary on Genesis 1, what does Scripture really state, and what does it not state? Nowhere in Genesis 1:14-19 does it inform us that the sun was prepared first and afterwards the moon. Had it informed us of this, Mr. Peters might have substantiation on which to stake his assumption, but the evidence to which he refers lacks the “proof” he claims.

 

Verse 16 confirms that the greater light rules the day, and the lesser light rules the night, but it does not spell out which one was created first. For all we know, Yahweh could have created them simultaneously! Indeed, the text lends evidence to that possibility —

 

“Then the Mighty One said, Let there be lights [plural] in the firmament of the heavens … and it was so

 

-- excerpted from Genesis 1:14-15 [comment and emphasis mine]

 

For the sake of examining the argument, assume for a moment that the sun was created before the moon. Even if so, this does not inherently prove that the Scriptural day begins with first light. As noted previously, darkness was here first. Plus, three evening-morning cycles of the creation week had already taken place prior to the creation of lights that took place on the fourth day of creation week. One might wonder how three evening-morning cycles occurred before the creation of lights on the fourth day. This author believes the Almighty Yahweh has enough power and radiance to furnish light in and of Himself when and where needed. Witness the following Scripture…

 

Rev 21:23

The city had no need of the sun or of the moon to shine in it, for the glory of Yahweh illuminated it. The Lamb is its light.

 

Please consider that when the greater light which rules the day (the sun) ceases to be seen, which is at the time of sunset or evening, that day comes to a close and is then over. By necessity, therefore, the next day also begins at that time, and another evening-morning process takes place.

 

 

 

Gen 8:22 (KJV)

While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.

 

This is one of many verses where day and night are mentioned, in that order. Morning Theory adherents insist that such word ordering provides a revelation as to the sequential order of the Scriptural day commencing with daylight and following with night.

 

Please notice, however: “cold” is mentioned before “heat,” but then “summer” is mentioned before “winter.” These word orderings are opposite each other! Therefore, there is enough evidence in this verse alone to illustrate that the word ordering contained therein does not prove that the Scriptural calendar day begins in the morning because each word ordering is not consistent.

 

Incidentally, the NKJV translators changed the word order to “winter and summer.” However, several other translations reflect the same word order found in the KJV, including the NIV, RSV, NASB, and Amplified versions.

 

Genesis 8:22 additional points to consider:

 

  • Genesis 8:22 does not show order of events, but rather cycles of events. Moses here employed a writing style called antitheses, which is the contrast of opposite words.

 

  • Taking into account that Yahweh evidently did not set forth His creation teeming with life and reproduction in the dead of winter, this further reveals that Genesis 8:22 does not show order of events – that is, it was not cold before heat.

 

  • As for day and night, the order had already been established in the beginning – Geneses 1 – “the evening and the morning were the first day … the second day …” and so on.

 

I invite you to visit the Appendices of this study where the matter of word orderings is further addressed. Not only are there Scriptures mentioning day and night, but there are also several Scripture references having the reverse word order of night and day, evening to evening, or similar wording. Applying the Morning Theory system of interpretation, that we must go with whatever the stated word order is, these Scriptures would just as easily lead to the conclusion that the Scriptural day begins in the evening!

 

If all of these Scriptures are defining when the Scriptural day begins based on whether day is mentioned first or night is mentioned first, we have hopeless contradictions. This can be resolved by recognizing that the Scriptures with the most weight are the Scriptures which actually have the definition for a Scriptural day as part of their context (for example, “the evening and the morning were the first day” – Gen 1:5).

 

 

 

Exo 12:18-19

18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day [yom] of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day [yom] of the month at evening.

19 For seven days [yom] no leaven shall be found in your houses, since whoever eats what is leavened, that same person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or a native of the land.

 

Morning Theorists contend that a special condition was placed on the beginning of the Feast of Unleavened Bread such that the observer should have leaven removed by “the fourteenth day of the month at evening” – a preventive measure to safeguard against the observer waiting until the last moment, just before morning light, to remove his leaven, thus ensuring that the people and the houses would be unleavened by morning light.

 

The answer to this argument is that the “fourteenth day of the month at evening” is a reference to the end of the fourteenth day, which coincides with the beginning of the fifteenth day. This harmonizes with other Scriptures which declare that the Feast of Unleavened Bread starts on the fifteenth and lasts seven days:

 

Lev 23:6

And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to Yahweh; seven days you must eat unleavened bread.

 

Num 28:17

And on the fifteenth day of this month is the feast; unleavened bread shall be eaten for seven days.

 

Further evidence that the “fourteenth day of the month at evening” is considered part of the seven, not eight, days of unleavened bread is shown by the following:

 

  • Many verses of Scripture testify that the eating of unleavened bread is to last seven days.

 

In order to illustrate the number of times that Scripture specifies seven days of unleavened bread, within the citations of the verses below, I have placed a count in brackets after each time the seven-day specification is given:

 

Exo 12:15

Seven days [Count: 1] you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel.

 

Exo 12:19

For seven days [Count: 2] no leaven shall be found in your houses, since whoever eats what is leavened, that same person shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he is a stranger or a native of the land.

 

Exo 13:6-7

6 Seven days [Count: 3] you shall eat unleavened bread, and on the seventh day there shall be a feast to Yahweh.

7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days [Count: 4]. And no leavened bread shall be seen among you, nor shall leaven be seen among you in all your quarters.

 

Exo 23:15

You shall keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread (you shall eat unleavened bread seven days [Count: 5], as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month of Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt; none shall appear before Me empty).

 

Exo 34:18

The Feast of Unleavened Bread you shall keep. Seven days [Count: 6] you shall eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, in the appointed time of the month of Abib; for in the month of Abib you came out from Egypt.

 

Lev 23:6

And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to Yahweh; seven days [Count: 7] you must eat unleavened bread.

 

Num 28:17

And on the fifteenth day of this month is the feast; unleavened bread shall be eaten for seven days [Count: 8].

 

Deu 16:3-4

3 You shall eat no leavened bread with it [the Passover, mentioned in verse 2]; seven days [Count: 9] you shall eat unleavened bread with it, that is, the bread of affliction (for you came out of the land of Egypt in haste), that you may remember the day in which you came out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life.

4 And no leaven shall be seen among you in all your territory for seven days [Count: 10], nor shall any of the meat which you sacrifice the first day at twilight remain overnight until morning.

 

Deu 16:8

Six days you shall eat unleavened bread, and on the seventh day [Count: 11] there shall be a sacred assembly to Yahweh your Mighty One. You shall do no work on it.

 

2 Chr 30:21

So the children of Israel who were present at Jerusalem kept the Feast of Unleavened Bread seven days [Count: 12] with great gladness; and the Levites and the priests praised Yahweh day by day, singing to Yahweh, accompanied by loud instruments.

 

2 Chr 35:17

And the children of Israel who were present kept the Passover at that time, and the Feast of Unleavened Bread for seven days [Count: 13].

 

Ezr 6:22

And they kept the Feast of Unleavened Bread seven days [Count: 14] with joy; for Yahweh made them joyful, and turned the heart of the king of Assyria toward them, to strengthen their hands in the work of the house of Elohim, the Elohim of Israel.

 

Eze 45:21

In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, you shall observe the Passover, a feast of seven days [Count: 15]; unleavened bread shall be eaten.

 

  • At least fifteen times Scripture specifies that unleavened bread is to be eaten for seven days, not eight days or even seven and a half days. Yet, Exodus 12:18 commands, “… On the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread …”

 

  • If it is true that the Scriptural day does not begin until first light, then we are left with seven days of unleavened bread plus a night of unleavened bread.

 

  • Taken together, these Scriptures disprove the Morning Theory and agree that the end of the fourteenth day at evening coincides with the beginning of the fifteenth day. Therefore, the Feast of Unleavened Bread is observed for seven 24-hour days, from the evening ending the fourteenth (which begins the fifteenth) until the evening ending the twenty-first.

 

Note: A separate chapter in this study is devoted to addressing Yahweh’s Alleged Silence about Evening to Evening Observance of Other Feast Days.

 

 

 

7.1. Context is Key

 

Morning Theory supporters claim this as a proof text that the Sabbath did not begin until the morning of the seventh day of the week.

 

Context is key. The context centers on the timing of manna being gathered. Remember, the manna was gathered in the mornings:

 

Exo 16:21

So they gathered it every morning, every man according to his need. And when the sun became hot, it melted.

 

  • The raining of manna in the morning does no more to prove the day begins in the morning than the quails coming up at evening and covering the camp does to prove the day begins in the evening (Exo 16:8, 13).

 

  • In context, the point was that there would be no manna to gather on the morning of the seventh day of the week as there was during the other mornings of the week. The point was not to exclude the previous evening as part of the Sabbath.

 

  • This was not a declaration that the Sabbath began in the morning, nor was it a declaration of “Day-Only” Sabbath observance.

 

  • A prohibition against going out in the evening to gather the manna would have had no point, as everyone knew that the manna was not there in the evening, after the sun melted it. Thus, the instruction to save the surplus gathered on the morning of the sixth day of the week for the seventh day.

 

7.2. Tomorrow (Heb. machar) is a Sabbath rest (Exo 16:23)

 

Exo 16:23

Then he said to them, This is what Yahweh has said: Tomorrow [machar (H4279)] is a Sabbath rest, a holy Sabbath to Yahweh. Bake what you will bake today, and boil what you will boil; and lay up for yourselves all that remains, to be kept until morning.

 

Verse 23 ties in with the context discussed above. Since this “tomorrow” was a Sabbath morning, there would be no rain of manna.

 

7.3. “Morrow,” “Tomorrow,” and the Hebrew word machar

 

Morning Theory advocates argue that the word “tomorrow” demands a different Scriptural calendar day, but this is not necessarily the case. Tomorrow can simply refer to the next period of daylight hours, whether that is in a different 24-hour period or not.

 

As shown within the Scripture quote above, the Hebrew word from which “tomorrow” is translated is machar. Following, is the definition of machar from Strong’s dictionary—

 

4279. machar, maw-khar'; prob. from H309; prop. deferred, i.e. the morrow; usually (adv.) tomorrow; indef. hereafter:--time to come, tomorrow.

 

Nothing in the definition demands a different calendar date. The definition also states that machar can refer to an indefinite time “hereafter.” It is a deferral until sometime in the future, whether that is the immediate morrow or some indefinite time hereafter.

 

In fact, machar has also been translated as “time to come,” further indicating the translators understanding that it indicated a deferral. Many instances from Scripture could be cited. Exodus 13:14 as one such example, where it explains the sacrifice or redemption of the firstborn:

 

Exo 13:14

So it shall be, when your son asks you in time to come [machar], saying, What is this? that you shall say to him, By strength of hand Yahweh brought us out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

 

An example of machar referring to the next period of daylight hours is Exodus 8:10. In this instance, Pharaoh requested Moses to intercede “tomorrow” so that the plague of frogs would be removed:

 

Exo 8:10

So he [Pharaoh] said, Tomorrow [machar]. And he [Moses] said, Let it be according to your word, that you may know that there is no one like Yahweh our Mighty One.

 

In summary, machar can refer to the next period of daylight hours, or some indefinite time in the future, whether that is in a different 24-hour calendar day or not. “Tomorrow,” in and of itself, does not prove the start of a new calendar date. It is simply a statement of fact about the timing of events to occur during the next period of daylight hours.

 

 

 

Lev 7:15-18

15 The flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offering for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day it is offered. He shall not leave any of it until morning.

16 But if the sacrifice of his offering is a vow or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offers his sacrifice; but on the next day the remainder of it also may be eaten;

17 the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day must be burned with fire.

18 And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offering is eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, nor shall it be imputed to him; it shall be an abomination to him who offers it, and the person who eats of it shall bear guilt.

 

Lev 22:29-30

29 And when you offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving to Yahweh, offer it of your own free will.

30 On the same day it shall be eaten; you shall leave none of it until morning: I am Yahweh.

 

When these verses are taken by themselves, they might seem to be ironclad proof that the next calendar day does not begin until the next morning light. Nevertheless, these verses must be taken along with the rest of the verses bearing on the subject within the full scope of Scripture. The explanation has to do with when sacrifices were offered and how elapsed time was figured relative to the time the sacrifice was offered.

 

Sacrifices were done during the daytime hours. Even the “evening sacrifice” was not offered at night, but during the closing daytime hours, a period of time known in Hebrew as “between the two evenings” – Exo 29:38-41; Num 23:3-4, 8 (for more information about this, I invite you to see the article Passover and Unleavened Bread: Time-Sensitive Information, available at the following location):

 

http://www.halleluyahfellowship.com/articles/passover-and-unleavened-bread-time-sensitive-information

 

As the Jewish Encyclopedia states:

 

The day is reckoned from evening to evening—i.e., night and day—except in reference to sacrifices, where daytime and the night following constitute one day (Lev. vii. 15; see Calendar).

 

-- “Day (Hebrew ‘yom’),” Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Web. 4/12/2013.

URL:

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/5007-day

 

In other words, when it comes to reckoning time relative to the eating of sacrifices, the evening following the sacrifice is reckoned to go with the day of that sacrifice. Obviously, a sacrifice could not be eaten during the evening that preceded it because it would be impossible to partake of a sacrifice not yet offered.

 

 

 

Lev 23:32

It [the Day of Atonement] shall be to you a sabbath of solemn rest, and you shall afflict your souls; on the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you shall celebrate your sabbath.

 

Morning Theory adherents argue that a special condition was placed on the Day of Atonement such that the observer should begin his fast on the night portion of the prior evening, well in advance of the daylight period of time, in order to achieve proper affliction of soul. This would preclude the observer from filling his belly just before first light and then only abstain during the daylight hours.

 

As shown in the preceding quote of Leviticus 23:32, the Day of Atonement is described as being from “the ninth day of the month at evening.” However, we know from verse 27 that it is actually the tenth day of the month.

 

Lev 23:27

Also the tenth day of this seventh month shall be the Day of Atonement. It shall be a holy convocation for you; you shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire to Yahweh.

 

Taken together, these verses agree that the end of the ninth day at evening is also the beginning of the tenth day.

 

To reiterate, verse 32 points out that the Day of Atonement is observed from evening to evening. This in itself is convincing evidence of the Scriptural definition of a day. It is not Days (plural) of Atonement, but the Day (singularly) of Atonement. Therefore, we can conclude that this period of time did not span parts of two consecutive days. It is one single day, and it is from evening to evening, which denotes one 24-hour period.

 

In order to hold to their view that the Scriptural day begins at first light, Morning Theorists must force an interpretation when it comes to the Day of Atonement, such that the Day of Atonement fast spanned portions of both the ninth and the tenth; for, even by their own definition, the darkness before the morning of the tenth is still the ninth! If the Day of Atonement spanned two consecutive dates, then it would be the Days (plural) of Atonement. Scripture specifies the Day (not Days) of Atonement, and it states that the Day (singular) of Atonement is the “tenth day” (Lev 23:27).

 

Moreover, the Day of Atonement does not imply observing the daylight hours only. Scripture claims the observation during a 24-hour period, from evening to evening.

 

Scripture also declares it “a sabbath of solemn rest.” Thus, it is very similar to the weekly Sabbath, which is also to be kept for an entire 24-hour day from evening to evening. More evidence of the weekly Sabbath beginning at evening can be found in the section of this article entitled “Sabbath Reform under Nehemiah (Neh 13:15-22).”

 

 

 

While Morning Theory adherents concede an evening to evening observance of the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the Day of Atonement, they rationalize that special conditions were placed on these observances that were not placed on other observances.

 

Craig Peters, The Dayspring, p. 8:

 

So why is Yahweh silent regarding “even to even” observance of:

 

The Feast of the Sabbath Day? (Leviticus 23:1-3) …

 

The Feast of Weeks, Pentecost? (Leviticus 23:15-22) …

 

The Feast of Trumpets? (Leviticus 23:23-25) …

 

The Feast of Tabernacles? (Leviticus 23:33-36)

 

Nowhere can be found an injunction to hold any portion of the last 4 observances from “even to even” thus, to celebrate them in that manner is presumptuous. Yahweh’s silence in this regard is most telling… [emphasis as shown in the original work]

 

But Yahweh is not silent in this regard. The order had already been established in the beginning – Geneses 1 – “the evening and the morning were the first day … second day …” and so on.

 

Could it be simpler? Once the first evening-morning sequence was established, every day followed (and does follow) in sequence. There is no need to constantly repeat the parameters governing when a day begins and ends, including the 24 hours of the weekly Sabbath.

 

 

 

In the following passages, the unclean person was to bathe in water and then become clean at evening (sunset).

 

Lev 22:6-7

6 The person who has touched any such thing shall be unclean until evening, and shall not eat the holy offerings unless he washes his body with water.

7 And when the sun goes down he shall be clean; and afterward he may eat the holy offerings, because it is his food.

 

Deu 23:9-11 (military camp application; similar civilian application is seen in Lev 15:16, also quoted below)

9 When the army goes out against your enemies, then keep yourself from every wicked thing.

10 If there is any man among you who becomes unclean by some occurrence in the night, then he shall go outside the camp; he shall not come inside the camp.

11 But it shall be, when evening comes, that he shall wash with water; and when the sun sets, he may come into the camp.

 

Lev 15:16 (civilian application)

If any man has an emission of semen, then he shall wash all his body in water, and be unclean until evening.

 

Evidently, the significance behind washing and becoming clean at sunset is that the person becomes clean and has a fresh start along with the commencement of a new day.

 

 

 

Deu 21:22-23

22 If a man has committed a sin deserving of death, and he is put to death, and you hang him on a tree,

23 his body shall not remain overnight on the tree, but you shall surely bury him that day, so that you do not defile the land which Yahweh your Mighty One is giving you as an inheritance; for he who is hanged is accursed of the Mighty One.

 

Now let us compare some instances in the Scriptural record where this actually occurred and notice how it was implemented. Both of the following occurrences mention the going down of the sun in connection with the disposing of the bodies.

 

Jos 8:29

And the king of Ai he hanged on a tree until evening. And as soon as the sun was down, Joshua commanded that they should take his corpse down from the tree, cast it at the entrance of the gate of the city, and raise over it a great heap of stones that remains to this day.

 

Note: Although the NKJV quoted above says “the sun was down,” placing it in the past tense, other versions translate it in the present tense—

 

  • RSV: “at the going down of the sun”

 

  • NIV: “At sunset”

 

  • NASB: “at sunset”

 

Likewise, in Joshua 10:26-27 we read—

 

Jos 10:26-27

26 And afterward Joshua struck them and killed them, and hanged them on five trees; and they were hanging on the trees until evening.

27 So it was at the time of the going down of the sun that Joshua commanded, and they took them down from the trees, cast them into the cave where they had been hidden, and laid large stones against the cave’s mouth, which remain until this very day.

 

This principle was also carried out with regard to the Messiah’s burial, which is covered later in this study.

 

 

 

In this passage, we find Samson making a wager with the Philistines that they could not solve his riddle within seven days of a feast that they were having (v 12-13).

 

The people threaten Samson’s wife to entice Samson to explain the riddle to her (v 15). After much adieu and weeping, in the nick of time, before the end of the feast, the answer to the riddle is coaxed out of Samson by his wife, she shares it with her people, and the people provide Samson with the answer (vv 16-18). They made it in under the wire, before the feast ended. When was this described as taking place? See verse 18—

 

Jdg 14:18

“… On the seventh day before the sun went down …”

 

 

 

Instead of quoting the entire chapter, I will here summarize and quote the key verses.

 

Saul and his men were in pursuit of David:

 

1 Sam 26:2

Then Saul arose and went down to the Wilderness of Ziph, having three thousand chosen men of Israel with him, to seek David in the Wilderness of Ziph.

 

David and Abishai came into Saul’s camp at night, while Saul and his men were sleeping:

 

1 Sam 26:7

So David and Abishai came to the people by night [layil (H3915)]; and there Saul lay sleeping within the camp, with his spear stuck in the ground by his head. And Abner and the people lay all around him.

 

Instead of seizing the opportunity to kill Saul, David took Saul’s spear and water jug:

 

1 Sam 26:12

So David took the spear and the jug of water by Saul’s head, and they got away; and no man saw it or knew it or awoke. For they were all asleep, because a deep sleep from Yahweh had fallen on them.

 

A short time later, David used the spear and water jug as evidence that he indeed had been in the camp and had the opportunity to kill Saul. David said to Abner, the commander of Saul’s army:

 

1 Sam 26:16

This thing that you have done is not good. As Yahweh lives, you deserve to die, because you have not guarded your master, Yahweh’s anointed. And now see where the king’s spear is, and the jug of water that was by his head.

 

Verse 21 contains Saul’s remarks upon learning that his life had been spared:

 

1 Sam 26:21

Then Saul said, I have sinned. Return, my son David. For I will harm you no more, because my life was precious in your eyes this day [yom]. Indeed I have played the fool and erred exceedingly.

 

Verses 22-24 contain David’s response to Saul:

 

1 Sam 26:22-24

22 And David answered and said, Here is the king’s spear. Let one of the young men come over and get it.

23 May Yahweh repay every man for his righteousness and his faithfulness; for Yahweh delivered you into my hand today [yom], but I would not stretch out my hand against Yahweh’s anointed.

24 And indeed, as your life was valued much this day [yom] in my eyes, so let my life be valued much in the eyes of Yahweh, and let Him deliver me out of all tribulation.

 

Again, the evidence shows that the word “day” (or Hebrew yom) can be used in the sense of what occurred during a calendar day, even when referring to something that actually occurred during the nighttime hours. In other words, “day” (yom) is not limited to the daytime hours. A day can refer to daylight, and it can also refer to a 24-hour calendar day.

 

 

 

Here we find Nehemiah reforming a problem having to do with business being conducted on the Sabbath. Verse 19 is the key verse having to do with our topic of the Scriptural day. In this verse, we find Nehemiah putting measures in place prior to the onset of the Sabbath in order to prevent the Sabbath from being violated—

 

Neh 13:19 (NKJV)

So it was, at the gates of Jerusalem, as it began to be dark before the Sabbath, that I commanded the gates to be shut, and charged that they must not be opened till after the Sabbath. Then I posted some of my servants at the gates, so that no burdens would be brought in on the Sabbath day.

 

Morning Theory proponents claim this supports their case as they allege that darkness had fallen and yet it was still “before the Sabbath.” Let us take a closer examination of this.

 

The words “began to be dark” appearing in the KJV and NKJV are translated from the Hebrew word tsalal (H6751). Strong’s definition follows:

 

6751. tsalal, tsaw-lal'; a prim. root [rather ident. with H6749 through the idea of hovering over (comp. H6754)]; to shade, as twilight or an opaque object:--begin to be dark, shadowing.

 

Tsalal has also been translated elsewhere as “shadowing”—

 

Eze 31:3 (KJV)

Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing [tsalal] shroud, and of an high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs.

 

Jeremiah 6:4 uses a related word, tselel (H6752), which is derived from tsalal. Jeremiah illustrates this as a time when shadows are falling—

 

Jer 6:4

Prepare war against her; arise, and let us go up at noon. Woe to us, for the day goes away, for the shadows of the evening are lengthening.

 

No sun means no shadows, but there were shadows here! Thus, this was before sunset.

 

In light of all of this evidence, there is no wonder that the NIV translators stated “when evening shadows fell” in their translation of Nehemiah 13:19.

 

Neh 13:19 (NIV)

When evening shadows fell on the gates of Jerusalem before the Sabbath, I ordered the doors to be shut and not opened until the Sabbath was over. I stationed some of my own men at the gates so that no load could be brought in on the Sabbath day.

 

Even in the KJV and NKJV, please pay careful attention to the time of day being described: “as it began to be dark before the Sabbath.” This could very easily indicate the time of day when evening shadows fall. This has to do with the process of the sixth day growing older and coming to a close, and a new day, the Sabbath, then beginning.

 

It does not say “when the gates of Jerusalem began to be light.” Thus, the Sabbath did not begin in the morning, but at the previous evening, and it was not observed during the “day only.” As we saw in Genesis 1 and 2 and as we saw with the Day of Atonement, so we now also see with Nehemiah – observance of the Sabbath as a 24-hour period beginning in the evening.

 

 

 

Pro 4:18 (NKJV)

But the path of the just is like the shining sun, that shines ever brighter unto the perfect day.

 

The NIV states it this way:

 

Pro 4:18 (NIV)

The path of the righteous is like the first gleam of dawn, shining ever brighter till the full light of day.

 

Craig Peters (The Dayspring, p. 3) insists:

 

This shows the light of dawn marks the start of a new day: while the “full day” does not occur till noon, the first trace of the light of dawn heralds that a new day has, indeed, commenced.

 

Refutation: The context here is the gradually increasing magnitude of light during the daytime, not the demarcation between days.

 

 

17. Gate of Future Temple Shut at Evening (Eze 46:1-2)

 

Eze 46:1-2

1 Thus says the Master Yahweh: The gateway of the inner court that faces toward the east shall be shut the six working days; but on the Sabbath it shall be opened, and on the day of the New Moon it shall be opened.

2 The prince shall enter by way of the vestibule of the gateway from the outside, and stand by the gatepost. The priests shall prepare his burnt offering and his peace offerings. He shall worship at the threshold of the gate. Then he shall go out, but the gate shall not be shut until evening.

 

In this prophetic description of a future Temple, verse 1 states that the gateway of the inner court facing east shall be shut the six working days, but it shall be opened on the Sabbath and on the day of the New Moon.

 

Then, in the later part of verse 2, we find something very interesting – the gate is to be shut at evening. That is, the gate is only to be open on the Sabbath and the New Moon, but is not to remain open into the next day.

 

If the Scriptural day begins in the evening and runs evening-to-evening, which is obviously the position this study takes, it would therefore be necessary to shut the gate in the evening so that it would not be open into the next Scriptural day. However, if the next Scriptural day does not begin until the next morning, the gate would not necessarily need to be shut for many hours following that evening.

 

 

 

Mar 1:21-22

21 Then they went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath He entered the synagogue and taught.

22 And they were astonished at His teaching, for He taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

 

Here, we find Yeshua entering Capernaum and teaching on the Sabbath day. With regard to our topic, the Scriptural day, we will find something very interesting that occurred in the ensuing verses. At the close of the Sabbath, people were brought to Yeshua to be healed. It truly would not have been a violation of the Sabbath for these healings to have occurred on the Sabbath, but because of erroneous tradition put on the people, they waited until the close of the Sabbath to bring those to be healed. Please hold that thought in mind while we examine the following passages showing the erroneous teaching regarding healing on the Sabbath—

 

Mat 12:10-14

10 And behold, there was a man who had a withered hand. And they asked Him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath?; that they might accuse Him.

11 Then He said to them, What man is there among you who has one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will not lay hold of it and lift it out?

12 Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.

13 Then He said to the man, Stretch out your hand. And he stretched it out, and it was restored as whole as the other.

14 Then the Pharisees went out and plotted against Him, how they might destroy Him.

 

Luke 13:10-14

10 Now He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath.

11 And behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was bent over and could in no way raise herself up.

12 But when Yeshua saw her, He called her to Him and said to her, Woman, you are loosed from your infirmity.

13 And He laid His hands on her, and immediately she was made straight, and glorified Yahweh.

14 But the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because Yeshua had healed on the Sabbath; and he said to the crowd, There are six days on which men ought to work; therefore come and be healed on them, and not on the Sabbath day.

 

Joh 9:13-16

13 They brought him who formerly was blind to the Pharisees.

14 Now it was a Sabbath when Yeshua made the clay and opened his eyes.

15 Then the Pharisees also asked him again how he had received his sight. He said to them, He put clay on my eyes, and I washed, and I see.

16 Therefore some of the Pharisees said, This Man is not from Yahweh, because He does not keep the Sabbath. Others said, How can a man who is a sinner do such signs? And there was a division among them.

 

Back to our situation in Mark 1, to reiterate, it was because of erroneous tradition put on the people that they waited until the close of the Sabbath to bring those to be healed. Let us now read about this further in Mark 1, paying particular attention to when this was described as taking place. —

 

Mar 1:32-34

32 At evening, when the sun had set [ending the Sabbath and beginning the first day of the week], they brought to Him all who were sick and those who were demon-possessed.

33 And the whole city was gathered together at the door.

34 Then He healed many who were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons; and He did not allow the demons to speak, because they knew Him.

 

Emphasizing the point, we see the people being brought for healing at the close of the Sabbath – i.e., sunset – the first day of the week then commencing.

 

This is also seen in Luke, chapter 4.

 

Luk 4:31-32

31 Then He went down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee, and was teaching them on the Sabbaths.

32 And they were astonished at His teaching, for His word was with authority.

 

Luk 4:38-40

38 Now He arose from the synagogue and entered Simon’s house. But Simon’s wife’s mother was sick with a high fever, and they made request of Him concerning her.

39 So He stood over her and rebuked the fever, and it left her. And immediately she arose and served them.

40 When the sun was setting [at the close of the Sabbath], all those who had any that were sick with various diseases brought them to Him; and He laid His hands on every one of them and healed them.

 

 

 

Mar 14:30

Yeshua said to him, Assuredly, I say to you that today, even this night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times.

 

If “day” only means “daylight” and “night” only means during darkness, there is a discrepancy here. Understanding that the Scriptural calendar day includes the dark portion of that calendar day resolves the discrepancy.

 

A comparison of Matthew and Luke further validates the understanding that the calendar day includes night. Matthew’s account states “this night,” whereas Luke’s states “this day”—

 

Mat 26:34

Yeshua said to him, Assuredly, I say to you that this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny Me three times.

 

Luk 22:34

Then He said, I tell you, Peter, the rooster shall not crow this day before you will deny three times that you know Me.

 

 

 

Joh 11:9-10

9 Yeshua answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If anyone walks in the day, he does not stumble, because he sees the light of this world.

10 But if one walks in the night, he stumbles, because the light is not in him.

 

The Day-Only argument here demands that Yeshua gave a de facto definition that a day consists of twelve hours. Very well, are the twelve hours of night to complete a full calendar day then lost? No. The context in John 11:9 is the daylight portion of the full, 24-hour calendar day. There are twelve hours of day and twelve hours of night in a full, 24-hour calendar day (in ancient times, the duration of the hours were adjusted as needed throughout the year to accommodate 12 hours each of day and night). If the twelve hours of night are lost, twelve hours of each calendar day are therefore also lost, under which conditions, obviously, no calendar will work.

 

We again call Mark to the witness stand:

 

Brother Mark, did Yeshua limit the word “day” to only daylight hours? Did He not also indicate that day can be applied to the full, 24-hour calendar day?

 

Your honor, He understood both. In my writings, you will find that He also used the word “today” in reference to night (Mar 14:30)—

 

Mar 14:30

Yeshua said to him, Assuredly, I say to you that today, even this night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times.

 

 

 

As we saw in Deuteronomy 21:22-23, those who were hung on a tree were to be buried the same day. Respective to the Messiah’s burial, this gives yet further insight into the Scriptural day.

 

In Matthew 27, we find the following record of Yeshua’s death—

 

Mat 27:46, 50

46 And about the ninth hour Yeshua cried out with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is, My El, My El, why have You forsaken Me?

50 And Yeshua cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit.

 

It was about the ninth hour, 3:00 PM in the afternoon, that this occurred. This was on the Preparation Day (Abib 14), the day before the annual high day Sabbath of the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Abib 15). —

 

Joh 19:31

Therefore, because it was the Preparation Day, that the bodies should not remain on the tree on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

 

The information given indicates that there was a desire to remove Yeshua’s body, and the bodies of those who were impaled with Him, from the stakes before the beginning of the ensuing day, which was an annual high Sabbath day.

 

The following verses describe Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus securing Yeshua’s body, preparing it for burial, and laying the body in the tomb.

 

Joh 19:38-42

38 After this, Joseph of Arimathea, being a disciple of Yeshua, but secretly, for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Yeshua; and Pilate gave him permission. So he came and took the body of Yeshua.

39 And Nicodemus, who at first came to Yeshua by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds.

40 Then they took the body of Yeshua, and bound it in strips of linen with the spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury.

41 Now in the place where He was impaled there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had yet been laid.

42 So there they laid Yeshua, because of the Jews’ Preparation Day, for the tomb was nearby.

 

Luke 23:52-54 also lends to the account—

52 This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Yeshua.

53 Then he took it down, wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a tomb that was hewn out of the rock, where no one had ever lain before.

54 That day was the Preparation, and the Sabbath drew near.

 

Remember, Yeshua’s death did not occur until around 3:00 PM in the afternoon. By the time Joseph of Arimathea had secured release of the body and Nicodemus brought the mixture of myrrh and aloes, and they prepared the body for burial, they had to put Him in the tomb which was nearby, before the annual high Sabbath which began that evening at sunset.

 

 

 

22.1. Introduction

 

Because of the wording used to describe the visitation to the Messiah’s tomb, it is material to the case of the Scriptural day to examine the logistics involved. As I see it, all of the Evangel accounts describe visiting the Messiah’s tomb on the early morning of the first day of the week. Mark, Luke, and John all easily agree with early morning of the first day of the week. There is some question about the timing of Matthew’s account, particularly the way it is worded in the KJV. This is addressed shortly.

 

Matthew, Mark, and Luke include similar details. John may describe an individual visit by Mary Magdalene. It is possible that some of the Evangel writers were aware of more detail than others, or simply that some chose to record more detail than others. It is also possible that some of the information that was recorded in the original manuscripts has been lost.

 

22.2. Matthew’s Account

 

Mat 28:1 (KJV)

In the end [Gr. opse (G3796)] of the sabbath, as it began to dawn [epiphosko (G2020)] toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.

 

According to Strong’s definitions:

 

  • Opse can mean “late in the day” and “by extens. after the close of the day.”

 

  • Epiphosko means “to begin to grow light.”

 

Although the KJV reads “in the end of the sabbath,” the NKJV and other translations make a correction by stating “after the Sabbath”—

 

Mat 28:1 (NKJV)

Now after the Sabbath, as the first day of the week began to dawn, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to see the tomb.

 

Mat 28:1 (NIV)

After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb.

 

Mat 28:1 (RSV)

Now after the sabbath, toward the dawn of the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to see the sepulchre.

 

Mat 28:1 (Amp)

NOW AFTER the Sabbath, near dawn of the first day of the week, Mary of Magdala and the other Mary went to take a look at the tomb.

 

22.3. The other Evangel accounts agree, this was on a Sunday morning

 

Mar 16:1-2 (NKJV)

1 Now when the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices, that they might come and anoint Him.

2 Very early in the morning, on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.

 

Luke 24:1 (NKJV)

Now on the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they, and certain other women with them, came to the tomb bringing the spices which they had prepared.

 

Joh 20:1 (NKJV)

Now on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene went to the tomb early, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb.

 

If the two Marys visited the tomb on Saturday night in Matthew 28:1, learned that the Messiah had already risen (v 6), saw Him, heard His voice, held His feet and worshipped Him (v 9), there would be no reason for them to come to the tomb with spices early the following morning to anoint the dead body; for as they would have already known, the tomb was empty, He had risen, and He was no longer dead!

 

22.4. “Early”

 

The Morning Theory position on this is that it was “early,” and that “early” for evening-to-evening observers demands a time shortly after sunset, which contradicts the statements that it was early in the morning. On the contrary, please understand that “early” for evening-to-evening observers does not demand a time shortly after sunset.

 

The Greek word from which “early” is translated in John 20:1 is proi, and has the following definition (source: Strong’s):

 

4404. proi, pro-ee'; adv. from G4253; at dawn; by impl. the day-break watch:--early (in the morning), (in the) morning.

 

Evening-to-evening observers have no problem with saying something occurred early in the morning, even while still dark. For example, if I am to be at work at 4:00 A.M., this would certainly qualify as early in the morning, yet it would be hours before dawn as well as hours after the previous sunset. This is a matter of language and expression; not a statement meant to define when the 24-hour Scriptural day begins.

 

The Apostle Mark confirms this usage when he refers to a time “in the morning” which was “a long while before daylight” —

 

Mark 1:35

Now in the morning, having risen a long while before daylight, He went out and departed to a solitary place; and there He prayed.

 

Mark’s account in 16:1-2 also confirms that “after the Sabbath” does not demand a time immediately after the Sabbath ended the prior evening, but can refer to a time several hours after the Sabbath “was past.”

 

22.5. While it was still dark (Joh 20:1)

 

Joh 20:1 (NKJV)

Now on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene went to the tomb early, while it was still dark, and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb.

 

Morning Theory advocates tell us that darkness followed by light is not the 24-hour Scriptural Day. In an attempt to force John 20:1 to align with the Morning Theory, it is argued that John’s darkness was so close to dawn that it was not dark enough to be classified as night.

 

The word “dark” in John 20:1 is from the Greek word skotia (G4653). Compare this to the Greek word “darkness” used in Genesis 1:5 in the Septuagint. It is the Greek word skotos (G4655). Upon checking these words in Strong’s dictionary, it is found that skotia (John’s usage) is derived from skotos (Septuagint usage in Genesis), thus tying together the darkness mentioned in both places. John’s usage of dark is consistent with the darkness mentioned in Genesis 1:5, which is also called “night.”

 

Morning Theory observers demand that darkness (or night) is not part of a 24-hour Scriptural day beginning in the evening, but this does not harmonize with the evidence shown in John. John informs us that early on the first day of the week, “it was still dark.” Moreover, this darkness is comparable to that described in Genesis 1:5, where it is also called “night,” and yet, to John, the first of the week had already arrived!

 

Consequently, the Evangel accounts of the visits to the tomb do nothing to harm the Scriptural day beginning in the evening and do nothing to support the Scriptural day beginning in the morning.

 

 

 

Some attempt to discredit the evening-to-evening reckoning of a day by accusing it of being Babylonian in origin. However, the following reference works state the exact opposite.

 

23.1. “Day,” World Book Encyclopedia

 

Vol. 4, 1962, p. 46—

 

The Babylonians began their day at sunrise. The ancient Jews began the day at sunset. The Egyptians and the Romans were the first to begin the day at midnight.

 

23.2. “Calendar,” Pictorial Bible Dictionary

 

Nashville: The Southwestern Co, 1968. p. 128—

 

While the Babylonian day, like that of most Near Easterners, began at sunrise, the Jewish day began at sunset (Deut. 23:11).

 

In light of this information, the tables should be turned and the question asked of Morning Theory observers, “Why would you want to observe a Babylonian system of reckoning days?”

 

 

 

24.1. Josephus: Wars 4.9.12

 

Further historical information comes to us from the Jewish historian, Josephus, in his work Wars of the Jews.

 

… One of the priests stood of course, and gave a signal beforehand, with a trumpet at the beginning of every seventh day, in the evening twilight, as also at the evening when that day was finished, as giving notice to the people when they were to leave off work, and when they were to go to work again.

 

-- Josephus: Wars of the Jews, 4.9.12 (i.e., Book 4, Chapter 9, Section 12), PC Study Bible formatted electronic database, © 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc.

 

24.2. Edersheim: The Temple, Its Ministry and Services

 

Alfred Edersheim, in The Temple, Its Ministry and Services, informs us:

 

… The Jews reckoned the day from evening to evening.

 

--Edersheim, Alfred, D.D., Ph.D., The Temple, Its Ministry and Services. PDF version from AGES Software, Albany, OR, Ver. 1.0, © 1997, pp. 131-132.

 

Mr. Edersheim also informs us that the evening sacrifice and the Passover sacrifice were done in the afternoon, and even earlier in the afternoon if on a Friday, in order to avoid needless breach of the Sabbath which would arrive that evening:

 

Already the evening sacrifice had been offered. Ordinarily it was slain at 2:30 P.M., and offered at about 3:30. But on the eve of the Passover, as we have seen, it was killed an hour earlier; and if the 14th of Nisan fell on a Friday — or rather from Thursday at eve to Friday at eve — two hours earlier, so as to avoid any needless breach of the Sabbath.

 

-- Ibid., p. 147.

 

 

 

Morning Theory advocates would have us believe that the Jews picked up a counterfeit day during their exile in Babylon. It is noteworthy; however, that Yeshua offered no rebuke as far as timing goes for the hours during which the Sabbath was observed when He was here amongst them. This in itself, then, is a strong proof for the proper timing of the Sabbath.

 

 

 

1 Joh 1:5

This is the message which we have heard from Him and declare to you, that Yahweh is light and in Him is no darkness at all.

 

In attempt to bolster their position, those who believe the Scriptural day begins in the morning attempt to castigate the dark portion of a day by drawing spiritual metaphors to light and darkness, quoting verses such as 1 John 1:5  and 1 Thessalonians 5:4-8 —

 

1 Th 5:4-8

4 But you, brethren, are not in darkness, so that this Day should overtake you as a thief.

5 You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness.

6 Therefore let us not sleep, as others do, but let us watch and be sober.

7 For those who sleep, sleep at night, and those who get drunk are drunk at night.

8 But let us who are of the day be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love, and as a helmet the hope of salvation.

 

Other verses which may be quoted after the same line of thought are these:

 

Joh 3:19-21

19 And this is the condemnation, that the light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.

20 For everyone practicing evil hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed.

21 But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his deeds may be clearly seen, that they have been done in Yahweh.

 

Joh 8:12

Then Yeshua spoke to them again, saying, I am the light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life.

 

Acts 26:18 (a portion of Yeshua’s words to Paul)

To open their eyes, in order to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan to Yahweh, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in Me.

 

Eph 5:8

For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Master. Walk as children of light.

 

Eph 6:12

For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.

 

Col 1:12-13

12 Giving thanks to the Father who has qualified us to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in the light.

13 He has delivered us from the power of darkness and conveyed us into the kingdom of the Son of His love.

 

1 Pet 2:9

But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, His own special people, that you may proclaim the praises of Him who called you out of darkness into His marvelous light.

 

After reading verses such as these, surely it can be concluded that the Creator would not begin His day with that dastardly darkness when “in Him is no darkness at all,” and when we are to be “sons of light and sons of the day”! This comes off very spiritual and could seem to be an over-the-top argument which cannot be answered.

 

Let me be the first to say that, when it comes to spiritual darkness, which is the context of such verses as 1 John 1:5 and 1 Thessalonians 5:4-8, I certainly agree with concepts such as there is no darkness in Yahweh and that we should be sons of the day. However, when it comes to literal days and nights, Scripture states that both day and night, light and darkness, belong to Yahweh —

 

Psa 74:16

The day is Yours, the night also is Yours; You have prepared the light and the sun.

 

Psa 104:20

You make darkness, and it is night, in which all the beasts of the forest creep about.

 

Isa 45:7

I form the light and create darkness, I make peace and create calamity; I, Yahweh, do all these things.

 

Moreover, part of being “sons of the day,” is not sleeping: “let us not sleep, as others do … for those who sleep, sleep at night” (1 Th 5:6-7). Carrying a literal interpretation through to its end, since we are to be sons of the day, we should therefore not sleep! This serves as an example of the trouble encountered when Scripture is thus misapplied. The context of Paul’s statements is that he is drawing an analogy to spiritual darkness. The context is not that he is making a statement defining the literal 24-hour Scriptural day.

 

Morning Theory proponents distort literal day and night by presenting the day as epitomizing all that is good, giving it only positive connotations, while giving darkness only negative associations. However, Scripture illustrates the day as having dangers of its own—

 

Psa 91:5-6

5 You shall not be afraid of the terror by night, nor of the arrow that flies by day,

6 Nor of the pestilence that walks in darkness, nor of the destruction that lays waste at noonday.

 

Psa 121:6

The sun shall not strike you by day, nor the moon by night.

 

The Day-Only method of contrasting literal daylight with spiritual darkness is misapplied. This gives rise to mentioning the following principle of interpretation:

 

When we grope for further spiritual meaning which ends up contradicting the clearer message given, the result is error.

 

Scripture acknowledges that both day and night belong to Yahweh. Thus, even though comparisons between literal daylight and spiritual darkness are attempted, this is not a valid reason for the dark portion of the Scriptural day to be excluded when it comes to considering the issue of when the Scriptural day begins.

 

 

 

Another, less popular, view claims that the beginning and ending of the Scriptural Day should always be reckoned with 6 P.M. According to the Encyclopaedia Judaica, the 6 P.M. reckoning is used in connection with the reckonings of the molad (conjunction) and is not used for reckoning the beginning and ending of the Sabbath—

 

For ritual purposes, e.g., in reckoning the times fixed for prayers or the commencement and termination of the Sabbath, the day is deemed to begin at sunset … But in the reckonings of the molad the day is the equatorial day of 24 hours of unvarying length and is deemed to commence at 6 P.M., probably in terms of local Jerusalem time.

 

-- “Calendar,” Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. Vol. 4, p. 354.

 

 

 

As the many Scriptures examined show, in context, the Scriptural day is a 24-hour period beginning in the evening. Genesis 1 set the pattern – “the evening and the morning were the first day … the second day …” and so on. Could it be simpler? Once the first evening-morning sequence was established, every day followed (and does follow) in sequence.

 

The seventh day Sabbath is no different; it is a 24-hour period beginning in the evening. Therefore, let us “Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy” (Exo 20:8) – all 24 hours of it.

 

 

 

There are certainly many Scripture references which mention day and night, in that order, or similar wording. Morning Theory adherents insist that such word orderings provide a revelation as to the sequential order of the Scriptural day commencing with daylight and following with night.

 

However, not only are there Scripture references mentioning day and night, but there are also several Scripture references having the reverse word order of night and day, evening to evening, or similar wording. Applying the Morning Theory system of interpretation to these Scriptures would just as easily lead to the conclusion that the Scriptural day begins in the evening!

 

If all of these Scriptures are defining when the Scriptural day begins based on whether day is mentioned first or night is mentioned first, we have hopeless contradictions. This can be resolved by recognizing that the Scriptures with the most weight are the Scriptures which actually have the definition for a Scriptural day as part of their context (for example, “the evening and the morning were the first day” – Gen 1:5).

 

When rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights (Gen 7:11-12), when Moses and Aaron met Pharaoh in the morning (Exo 7:15), when Pharaoh requested Moses to pray “tomorrow” for the removal of the plague of frogs (Exo 8:10), when an east wind blew day and night and brought locusts in the morning (Exo 10:13), when Yahweh led Israel with a cloud by day and a fire by night (Exo 13:21), when manna was rained in the morning (Exo 16:4), when Yahweh met with the people at Mt. Sinai on the “third day” (Exo 19:16), when Jonah was in the belly of the fish “three days and three nights” (Jon 1:17), when Paul departed Troas after “daybreak” (Acts 20:11), when the devil is tormented “day and night” (Rev 20:10), and so forth and so on, none of these things proves the start of a new 24-hour calendar day. They are simply statements of fact about the timing of events.

 

Following are Biblical texts with day / night word order (or similar thereto). This list may not be exhaustive; nevertheless, it does give many examples of day / night word ordering (or similar thereto):

 

Gen 7:11-12

11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

12 And the rain was on the earth forty days and forty nights.

 

Gen 8:22

While the earth remains, Seedtime and harvest, Cold and heat, Winter and summer, and day and night shall not cease. [KJV: “cold and heat, and summer and winter”; other translations also reflect this word order]

 

Exo 10:13

So Moses stretched out his rod over the land of Egypt, and Yahweh brought an east wind on the land all that day and all that night. When it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.

 

Exo 13:21

And Yahweh went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, so as to go by day and night.

 

Exo 18:13

And so it was, on the next day, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood before Moses from morning until evening.

 

Lev 8:35 (actually promotes the observance of a 24-hour day)

Therefore you shall stay at the door of the tabernacle of meeting day and night for seven days [yom], and keep the charge of Yahweh, so that you may not die; for so I have been commanded.

 

Num 11:32

And the people stayed up all that day, all night, and all the next day, and gathered the quail (he who gathered least gathered ten homers); and they spread them out for themselves all around the camp.

 

Deu 28:66

Your life shall hang in doubt before you; you shall fear day and night, and have no assurance of life.

 

Jos 1:8

This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it. For then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success.

 

1 Sam 17:16

And the Philistine drew near and presented himself forty days, morning and evening.

 

1 Sam 19:24

And he also stripped off his clothes and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night. Therefore they say, Is Saul also among the prophets?

 

1 Sam 28:20

Then immediately Saul fell full length on the ground, and was dreadfully afraid because of the words of Samuel. And there was no strength in him, for he had eaten no food all day or all night.

 

1 Ki 8:59

And may these words of mine, with which I have made supplication before Yahweh, be near Yahweh our Mighty One day and night, that He may maintain the cause of His servant and the cause of His people Israel, as each day may require.

 

Compare verse 29 —

 

1 Ki 8:29

That Your eyes may be open toward this temple night and day, toward the place of which You said, My name shall be there, that You may hear the prayer which Your servant makes toward this place.

 

Assuming the translation has been carried forward accurately, both word orderings are shown. Solomon was not confused. He was simply using an expression.

 

1 Chr 9:33

These are the singers, heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites, who lodged in the chambers, and were free from other duties; for they were employed in that work day and night.

 

2 Chr 6:20

That Your eyes may be open toward this temple day and night, toward the place where You said You would put Your name, that You may hear the prayer which Your servant prays toward this place.

 

Compare 1 Kings 8:29 —

 

1 Ki 8:29

That Your eyes may be open toward this temple night and day, toward the place of which You said, My name shall be there, that You may hear the prayer which Your servant makes toward this place.

 

Ezr 3:3

Though fear had come upon them because of the people of those countries, they set the altar on its bases; and they offered burnt offerings on it to Yahweh, both the morning and evening burnt offerings.

 

Neh 1:6

Please let Your ear be attentive and Your eyes open, that You may hear the prayer of Your servant which I pray before You now, day and night, for the children of Israel Your servants, and confess the sins of the children of Israel which we have sinned against You. Both my father’s house and I have sinned.

 

Neh 4:9

Nevertheless we made our prayer to our Mighty One, and because of them we set a watch against them day and night.

 

Job 2:13

So they sat down with him on the ground seven days and seven nights, and no one spoke a word to him, for they saw that his grief was very great.

 

Job 26:10

He drew a circular horizon on the face of the waters, at the boundary of light and darkness.

 

Psa 1:2

But his delight is in the law of Yahweh, and in His law he meditates day and night.

 

Psa 19:2

Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night reveals knowledge.

 

Psa 32:4

For day and night Your hand was heavy upon me; my vitality was turned into the drought of summer. Selah

 

Psa 42:3, 8

3 My tears have been my food day and night, while they continually say to me, Where is your Mighty One?

8 Yahweh will command His lovingkindness in the daytime, and in the night His song shall be with me; A prayer to the Mighty One of my life.

 

Psa 55:10

Day and night they go around it on its walls; iniquity and trouble are also in the midst of it.

 

Psa 65:8

They also who dwell in the farthest parts are afraid of Your signs; You make the outgoings of the morning and evening rejoice.

 

Psa 74:16

The day is Yours, the night also is Yours; You have prepared the light and the sun.

 

Psa 78:14

In the daytime also He led them with the cloud, and all the night with a light of fire.

 

Psa 88:1

O Yahweh, Mighty One of my salvation, I have cried out day and night before You.

 

Psa 121:6

The sun shall not strike you by day, nor the moon by night.

 

Psa 136:7-9

7 To Him who made great lights, for His mercy endures forever;

8 The sun to rule by day, for His mercy endures forever;

9 The moon and stars to rule by night, for His mercy endures forever.

 

Ecc 8:16

When I applied my heart to know wisdom and to see the business that is done on earth, even though one sees no sleep day or night.

 

Isa 21:12

The watchman said, The morning comes, and also the night. If you will inquire, inquire; Return! Come back!

 

Isa 28:19

As often as it goes out it will take you; for morning by morning it will pass over, and by day and by night; it will be a terror just to understand the report.

 

Isa 38:12

My life span is gone, taken from me like a shepherd’s tent; I have cut off my life like a weaver. He cuts me off from the loom; from day until night You make an end of me.

 

Isa 60:11

Therefore your gates shall be open continually; they shall not be shut day or night, that men may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, and their kings in procession.

 

Isa 62:6

I have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem; they shall never hold their peace day or night. You who make mention of Yahweh, do not keep silent.

 

Jer 9:1

Oh, that my head were waters, and my eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people!

 

Jer 16:13

Therefore I will cast you out of this land into a land that you do not know, neither you nor your fathers; and there you shall serve other mighty ones day and night, where I will not show you favor.

 

Jer 31:35

Thus says Yahweh, Who gives the sun for a light by day, the ordinances of the moon and the stars for a light by night, Who disturbs the sea, and its waves roar (Yahweh of hosts is His name).

 

Jer 33:20-21, 25-26

20 Thus says Yahweh: If you can break My covenant with the day and My covenant with the night, so that there will not be day and night in their season,

21 then My covenant may also be broken with David My servant, so that he shall not have a son to reign on his throne, and with the Levites, the priests, My ministers.

25 Thus says Yahweh: If My covenant is not with day and night, and if I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth,

26 then I will cast away the descendants of Jacob and David My servant, so that I will not take any of his descendants to be rulers over the descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. For I will cause their captives to return, and will have mercy on them.

 

Jer 36:30

Therefore thus says Yahweh concerning Jehoiakim king of Judah: He shall have no one to sit on the throne of David, and his dead body shall be cast out to the heat of the day and the frost of the night.

 

Lam 2:18

Their heart cried out to the Master, O wall of the daughter of Zion, let tears run down like a river day and night; give yourself no relief; give your eyes no rest.

 

Jon 1:17

Now Yahweh had prepared a great fish to swallow Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.

 

Mat 4:2

And when He had fasted forty days and forty nights, afterward He was hungry.

 

Mat 12:40

For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

 

Mar 14:30

Yeshua said to him, Assuredly, I say to you that today, even this night, before the rooster crows twice, you will deny Me three times.

 

Note: Actually, this statement was made at night. Please check the context—

 

Mar 14:26-27

26 And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.

27 Then Yeshua said to them, All of you will be made to stumble because of Me this night, for it is written: I will strike the Shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered.

 

Luk 18:7

And shall Yahweh not avenge His own elect who cry out day and night to Him, though He bears long with them?

 

Luk 21:37-38

37 And in the daytime He was teaching in the temple, but at night He went out and stayed on the mountain called Olivet.

38 Then early in the morning all the people came to Him in the temple to hear Him.

 

Joh 9:4

I must work the works of Him who sent Me while it is day; the night is coming when no one can work.

 

Acts 9:24

But their plot became known to Saul. And they watched the gates day and night, to kill him.

 

Acts 26:7 (KJV)

Unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving Yahweh day and night*, hope to come. For which hope’s sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews.

 

* The KJV is quoted above. The NKJV rendering of this verse shows the reverse word ordering, “night and day.”

 

Rev 4:8

The four living creatures, each having six wings, were full of eyes around and within. And they do not rest day or night, saying: Holy, holy, holy, Master Yahweh Almighty, Who was and is and is to come!

 

Rev 7:15

Therefore they are before the throne of Yahweh, and serve Him day and night in His temple. And He who sits on the throne will dwell among them.

 

Rev 12:10

Then I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our Mighty One, and the power of His Messiah have come, for the accuser of our brethren, who accused them before our Mighty One day and night, has been cast down.

 

Rev 14:11

And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name.

 

Rev 20:10

The devil, who deceived them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone where the beast and the false prophet are. And they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.

 

 

 

Gen 1:5

The Mighty One called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. So the evening and the morning were the first day.

 

Gen 1:8

And the Mighty One called the firmament Heaven. So the evening and the morning were the second day.

 

Gen 1:13

So the evening and the morning were the third day.

 

Gen 1:19

So the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

 

Gen 1:23

So the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

 

Gen 1:31

Then the Mighty One saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

 

Exo 16:8, 13

8 Also Moses said, This shall be seen when Yahweh gives you meat to eat in the evening, and in the morning bread to the full; for Yahweh hears your complaints which you make against Him. And what are we? Your complaints are not against us but against Yahweh.

13 So it was that quails came up at evening and covered the camp, and in the morning the dew lay all around the camp.

 

Lev 23:32

It shall be to you a sabbath of solemn rest, and you shall afflict your souls; on the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you shall celebrate your sabbath.

 

Lev 24:3

Outside the veil of the Testimony, in the tabernacle of meeting, Aaron shall be in charge of it from evening until morning before Yahweh continually; it shall be a statute forever in your generations.

 

1 Sam 14:36

Now Saul said, Let us go down after the Philistines by night, and plunder them until the morning light; and let us not leave a man of them. And they said, Do whatever seems good to you. Then the priest said, Let us draw near to the Mighty One here.

 

1 Ki 8:29 (Cp. 1 Ki 8:59; 2 Chr 6:20; both word orders are shown)

That Your eyes may be open toward this temple night and day, toward the place of which You said, My name shall be there, that You may hear the prayer which Your servant makes toward this place.

 

Est 4:16

Go, gather all the Jews who are present in Shushan, and fast for me; neither eat nor drink for three days, night or day. My maids and I will fast likewise. And so I will go to the king, which is against the law; and if I perish, I perish!

 

Psa 91:5-6

5 You shall not be afraid of the terror by night, nor of the arrow that flies by day,

6 Nor of the pestilence that walks in darkness, nor of the destruction that lays waste at noonday.

 

Isa 27:3

I, Yahweh, keep it, I water it every moment; lest any hurt it, I keep it night and day.

 

Jer 14:17

Therefore you shall say this word to them: Let my eyes flow with tears night and day, and let them not cease; for the virgin daughter of my people has been broken with a mighty stroke, with a very severe blow.

 

Dan 8:14, 26

14 And he said to me, for two thousand three hundred days [evening-mornings (text note from NKJV)]; then the sanctuary shall be cleansed.

26 And the vision of the evenings and mornings which was told is true; therefore seal up the vision, for it refers to many days in the future.

 

Mar 5:5

And always, night and day, he was in the mountains and in the tombs, crying out and cutting himself with stones.

 

Luk 2:36-37

36 Now there was one, Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was of a great age, and had lived with a husband seven years from her virginity;

37 and this woman was a widow of about eighty-four years, who did not depart from the temple, but served Yahweh with fastings and prayers night and day.

 

Joh 21:3-4

3 Simon Peter said to them, I am going fishing. They said to him, We are going with you also. They went out and immediately got into the boat, and that night they caught nothing.

4 But when the morning had now come, Yeshua stood on the shore; yet the disciples did not know that it was Yeshua.

 

Acts 12:6, 18

6 And when Herod was about to bring him out, that night Peter was sleeping, bound with two chains between two soldiers; and the guards before the door were keeping the prison.

18 Then, as soon as it was day, there was no small stir among the soldiers about what had become of Peter.

 

Acts 16:33-35

33 And he took them the same hour of the night and washed their stripes. And immediately he and all his family were baptized.

34 Now when he had brought them into his house, he set food before them; and he rejoiced, having believed in Yahweh with all his household.

35 And when it was day, the magistrates sent the officers, saying, Let those men go.

 

Acts 20:31

Therefore watch, and remember that for three years I did not cease to warn everyone night and day with tears.

 

Acts 26:7

To this promise our twelve tribes, earnestly serving Yahweh night and day*, hope to attain. For this hope’s sake, King Agrippa, I am accused by the Jews.

 

* The NKJV is quoted above. The KJV rendering of this verse shows the reverse word ordering, “day and night.”

 

Rom 13:12

The night is far spent, the day is at hand. Therefore let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light.

 

2 Cor 11:25

Three times I was beaten with rods; once I was stoned; three times I was shipwrecked; a night and a day I have been in the deep.

 

1 Thess 2:9

For you remember, brethren, our labor and toil; for laboring night and day, that we might not be a burden to any of you, we preached to you the evangel of Yahweh.

 

1 Thess 3:9-10

9 For what thanks can we render to Yahweh for you, for all the joy with which we rejoice for your sake before our Mighty One,

10 night and day praying exceedingly that we may see your face and perfect what is lacking in your faith?

 

2 Thess 3:8

Nor did we eat anyone’s bread free of charge, but worked with labor and toil night and day, that we might not be a burden to any of you.

 

1 Tim 5:5

Now she who is really a widow, and left alone, trusts in Yahweh and continues in supplications and prayers night and day.

 

2 Tim 1:3

I thank Yahweh, whom I serve with a pure conscience, as my forefathers did, as without ceasing I remember you in my prayers night and day.

 

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